Learn

We believe in ongoing learning and development

We believe in sharing knowledge as it makes us all better at what we do.

Below is a repository of materials in which readers may be interested.  As we find new articles or media clips that we believe will be beneficial we will add them to our list below.

We invite our readers to contribute so that we may update, replace or add to what we already have.

What is JORC?

Pan Asia reports its exploration results in accordance with The JORC Code.

The JORC Code provides a mandatory system for the classification of minerals Exploration Results, Mineral Resources and Ore Reserves according to the levels of confidence in geological knowledge and technical and economic considerations in Public Reports.

Public Reports prepared in accordance with the JORC Code are reports prepared for the purpose of informing investors or potential investors and their advisors. They include, but are not limited to, annual and quarterly company reports, press releases, information memoranda, technical papers, website postings and public presentations of Exploration Results, Mineral Resources and Ore Reserves estimates.

The current edition of the JORC Code was published in 2012 and after a transition period the 2012 Edition came into mandatory operation from 1 December 2013.  The JORC Code, 2012 Edition can be found here: English, Chinese.  This link will take you to the JORC library page.

The JORC Code is produced by the Australasian Joint Ore Reserves Committee (‘the JORC Committee’). The Committee includes representatives of each of the three parent bodies: The Minerals Council of Australia (MCA), The Australasian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy (AusIMM), and the Australian Institute of Geoscientists (AIG).

The Committee also works closely with the Committee for Mineral Reserves International Reporting Standards (CRIRSCO) to maintain international consistency in the development of reporting standards.  The CRIRSCO website provides a very interesting overview of the various codes under which exploration and mining companies report.  This link will take you to the CRIRSCO website.

What is the Cost Curve?

We use the term Cost Curve a lot … a lot more than many of our peers.

An industry cost curve is a chart that maps a producer’s or product’s cost of production relative to its competitors.  In micro-economics it can be used to measure available capacity incrementally, allowing one to use the order of increasing costs as a tool to analyse pricing dynamics relative to demand.  In many industries simple factors such as energy and labour can be the key differentiating factors of competitiveness, hence the hollowing out of basic industries in developed countries to the advantage of developing countries based on energy and labour costs alone.

In mining there are many more factors affecting the competitiveness of one project over another, with geography, orebody parameters, and metallurgy all being important considerations in conjunction with labour and energy.  There are many examples of projects in all commodities with high grades or large mineral deposits being uneconomic / un-bankable while a much smaller and or lower grade project will be economic.  Many millions have been spent on feasibility studies when one could have reasonably determined that the project would fail at the outset due to simple factors such as distance.  At Pan Asia we aim to secure opportunities which have the potential to be positioned in the first tercile (bottom third) of the cost curve.  We believe a project in the first tercile will be very robust, debt and equity finance should be more easily obtainable than it otherwise would be for a project situated in the top half or third of the cost curve.

Cost curves can be complex and often companies can approach them in an over simplistic fashion i.e. measuring direct cash operating costs only without considering other important factors, including capital costs and equipment depreciation.  In addition, until a mine is operating, we will never be know exactly where it sits on the cost curve – nevertheless, one can make educated decisions based on precedents.

The cost curve to the left is one that Pan Asia has used to determine where mines operating in SE Asia may sit on a tonnes milled basis, as opposed to costs on a per unit of metal produced, i.e., all else being equal, the process of getting mine output to and through a mill is fairly standard.  Therefore, this cost curve can be a reasonable measure of direct cash operating costs in specific countries.  In this cost curve we identify that Thailand is a low-cost jurisdiction, the operation identified is positioned in the 1st octile.  From this we can determined that an opportunity with negative factors such as lower grades or a deeper ore body may still be economic whereas, if the same opportunity was situated in a high cost jurisdiction, it might not be.  Further, an operation with peer group leading parameters, including grade, will likely be well positioned on the cost curve.

The cost curve can be an informative tool but if its application is incorrectly used, i.e., the curve is measuring the wrong parameters, it can be highly misleading.

Ore Deposits Series for Non-Geologists

A series of videos to help the reader gain an understanding of ore deposits.

This series of videos was put together by Andrew Jackson of Sprott Global Resource Investments Ltd.  We thank Andrew for the contribution of his time and experience in compiling this series of videos.

Although the series is long it will provide the viewer with a very good understanding of ore deposits and what it takes for an exploration company, and specifically its geologists, to identify and verify an economic ore deposit.

We highly recommend Andrew Jackson’s videos No. 10 and 11, which cover the exploration process and the estimation of resources and reserves.

Part 1 – Introduction

Part 2 – Layered Complexes, Kimberlites

Part 3 – Porphyries, Skarns & Iron Oxide Copper Gold (IOCG)

Part 4 – Mesothermal and Greenstone Gold

Part 5 – Epithermal Deposits

Part 6 – Carlin Gold Deposits

Part 7 – Volcanogenic Massive Sulfide (VMS) and Sedimentary Exhalative (Sedex) Deposits

Part 8 – Witwatersrand Gold Deposits

Part 9 – Uranium Deposits

Part 10 – The Exploration Process

Part 11 – Mineral Reserves, Resources and Estimation